REAXIS® C416 (Dioctyltin bis-(2-Ethylhexyl Mercaptoacetate) ), also known as DOTE, is octyl-based dialkyl organotin with added functionality. REAXIS® C416 has the characteristic reactivity of a Sn (IV) organotin catalyst with improved upfront delay and improved hydrolytic stability due to the presence of a ligand with sulfur functionality. Used primarily in polyurethanes, REAXIS® C416 imparts more controlled reactivity versus standard metal carboxylates such as REAXIS® C218 (Dibutyltin Dilaurate), REAXIS® C216 (Dioctyltin Dilaurate), and REAXIS® C325 (Dimethyltin Dineodecanoate). Catalysts similar to REAXIS® C416 include REAXIS® C319 (Dibutyltin Dilauyl Mercaptide), REAXIS® C320 (Dioctyltin Dilauryl Mercaptide), REAXIS® C214 (Dioctyltin bis-(isooctyl Mercaptoacetate) and REAXIS® C322 (Dibutyltin bis-(2-Ethylhexyl Mercaptocetate)). REAXIS® C416 is present on most international regulatory lists as commercial use-complaint.
For more information, we invite you to read our technical bulletins on Iron Catalysts for Urethane Chemistries and Strategies for Improving Back-End Reactivity of Bismuth Carboxylate Catalysts.
|Tin Content (%)
|15.2 - 17.0
|1.02 - 1.10
|Color (Gardner Number)
Unlike standard organotin carboxylates, sulfur-bearing organotins are primarily used as a catalyst for polyurethanes. The reactivity of catalysts such REAXIS® C416 tend to be inactive in silicone and esterification-related applications. As the sulfur ligand acts as a blocking agent, thermal deblocking is required to initiate the back-end cure. Thus, catalysts such as REAXIS® C416 tend to perform best in adhesive, elastomer, and foam applications with adequate exotherms. For coatings applications, REAXIS® C416 can be used in baked cured systems in contrast to ambient cured systems.
As is typical of most organotin and inorganic tin catalysts, the specific ligand contributes a major influence on overall reactivity. This is specifically highlighted regarding sulfur- bearing ligands. In general, these sulfur ligands impart improved front-end delay and hydrolytic stability versus standard tin carboxylates. Standard ligands include thiols, mercaptides and mercaptoacetates. Reactivity as defined by delay, thermal availability, hydrolytic stability, and final cure will depend on the specific ligand, tin content, alkyl group and, most importantly, other raw materials used in the specific polyurethane formulation. In regard to the reactivity of the various urethane reactions, catalysts such as REAXIS® C416 will selectively catalyze the isocyanate-polyol reaction, with less of an effect on the water reaction. REAXIS® C416 tends to be less active than its buytl analogue, REAXIS® C322, due to the latter product’s increased active tin content. Given its synthetic nature, REAXIS® C416 imparts minimal color at high reaction temperatures.
REAXIS® C416 should be stored in the original packaging at moderate temperatures and kept from freezing. The container should be closed tightly after each use to maximize shelf life. Characteristic of most Sn (IV) organotins, the primary cause of instability would be hydrolysis. Although more stable compared to organotin carboxylates, longterm contact with moisture could result in hydrolysis with the formation of tin oxide insolubles leading to deactivation of REAXIS® C416.