|Reaxis C154 – Stannous Chloride Dihydrate||Stannous Chloride, Dihydrate||Request A Sample|
|Reaxis C162||Stannous Chloride, Anhydrous||Request A Sample|
|Reaxis E144 – Sodium Stannate||Sodium Stannate||Request A Sample|
|Reaxis E144P – Sodium Stannate||Sodium Stannate, Peroxide Grade||Request A Sample|
|Reaxis E155||Stannous Sulfate Crystal||Request A Sample|
Tin Chemicals as Battery Additives
The increased demand for electric vehicles (EV) and alternative energy generation sources has created an equally increased demand for battery storage technologies. As these technologies enter into their next generation of development, new specialty chemical compounds will be required that allow for enhanced functionality and performance. Tin chemicals represent one of these chemical technologies that will help in solving problems experienced due to the current state of battery science. Using both tin metal and tin chemicals, battery manufacturers have a tool that could solve common problems including improvements in energy density/power density for use in batteries demanding higher voltage and power, increased charge capacity, minimization of electrode corrosion/passivation/fouling, and improvements in electrolyte conductivity.
As performance-enhancing battery additives, tin chemicals can be used with the electrodes (both anode and cathode) and electrolytes. Battery technologies where tin chemicals and tin metal are considered include additives or precursors for carbon anodes, additives or alloys used as the main anode material, additives, or alloys in silicone-based anodes, additive or precursors in Lithium anodes, solid-state electrolytes, electrolyte additives for metal-air batteries, and cathode components.
Tin Chemicals Used as Battery Additives
Tin chemicals used as either electrode or electrolyte additives are primarily of the inorganic tin species. Both stannous (tin (II)) and stannic (tin (IV)) chemicals are used. Reaxis supplies mainly stannous-based inorganic tin chemicals. Common inorganic tin products being looked at in the new battery technologies include REAXIS® C154 and REAXIS® C162, which are variants of stannous chloride, REAXIS® E144 and REAXIS® E140 which are stannates, REAXIS® C188 (Stannous Oxide) and carboxylates including REAXIS® C129 and REAXIS® C125. Learn more about the Stannous Chloride and Stannate chemical families below, or contact us for more information.
Stannous chlorides can be used as performance battery additives by, for example, improving the conductivity of the electrolyte. Stannous chlorides can be used as a reducing agent in capacity and cycling performance improvements in lithium-sulfur batteries. Stannous chloride can also be used as a precursor for cathodes. Reaxis supplies a wide range of solid and liquid-grade stannous chloride products including REAXIS® C154 (Stannous Chloride Dihydrate), REAXIS® C162 (Stannous Chloride Anhydrous), REAXIS® S50 and REAXIS® S72 (Stannous Chloride Solutions).
As tin (IV) based inorganic tins, stannates can be used as additives to improve battery performance. The main stannate products being used in battery applications include the solid grades, REAXIS® E144 (Sodium Stannate) and REAXIS® E140 (Potassium Stannate) and the related liquid grades (REAXIS® E144P-22). Stannates can be used to improve the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode in certain fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Stannates can be used as conductive battery additives, improving ion mobility in the electrolytes. Stannates can be used in metal-air batteries in minimizing the hydrogen evolution reactions at the anode which leads to corrosion/passivation/fouling resulting in a decrease in charging capacity and charge retention over time. For example, Potassium Stannate has been used as an electrolyte additive in Fe-air batteries; A hybrid additive consisting of Sodium Stannate and ellagic acid (bio-based, sourced from pomegranate rinds) in an Al-air battery has also been researched.
International Tin Association. (2019). Market Report: Tin in Lithium-ion Batteries – Executive Summary. Retrieved from https://www.internationaltin.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/ITA-2019-Market-Report-Tin-in-Lithium-ion-Batteries-Executive-Summary.pdf