Reaxis: Your Reliable Source for Tin Chemicals & Catalysts
At Reaxis, our commitment is to provide an array of high-quality tin-based chemicals that meet your diverse industrial needs. Our product line of tin compounds and catalysts, coupled with our deep understanding of industrial chemistry and continuous innovation, makes Reaxis an ideal partner for new formulation development and problem-solving. As a trusted choice for manufacturers, our dedication to quality, reliability, and technical support can help enhance your product performance and optimize process efficiency.
Introduction to Tin Chemicals
From their first use in the Bronze Age through modern times, tin and tin compounds have continued to evolve as critical performance additives in applications ranging from personal care to industrial catalysis. Their evolution stems from the versatile nature of elemental tin, which can be refined and processed to form two families of compounds: inorganic tins (e.g. stannous chloride dihydrate and stannous octoate) and organometallic tins (e.g. dibutyltin dilaurate and dimethyltin dineodecanoate).
Chemistry of Tin
Tin compounds exist in two stable oxidation states: Sn2+ (stannous, tin(II)) and Sn4+ (stannic, tin(IV)). The Sn3+ oxidation state is accessible; however, it is unstable and very few kinetically stable compounds exist. Two classes of tin compounds can be derived from either oxidation state (i.e., inorganic tins and organometallic tins). Organometallic tins indeed comprise Sn2+ or Sn4+ atoms, however the “organo-” contribution is derived from the presence of tin-carbon (Sn-C) bonds. Inorganic tin species do not contain Sn-C bonds and are chemically and physically different from organometallic tins.
Applications of Tin Chemicals
Some common applications and the related chemicals used include:
– Treatment of Industrial Waters: Stannous Chloride is used as a corrosion inhibitor where a protective layer of tin metal plates out on steel-based processing/treatment equipment. Stannous Chloride can also be used as a reducing agent to convert toxic Cr +6 to a less toxic Cr+3 form.
– Oil and Gas Drilling: Here, stannous chloride can be used both in the pickling operations for treating processing equipment and for iron reduction in stimulating well development/production. Stannous sulfate and sodium stannate can be used as a rheology modifier for specific well development needs.
– Personal Care: Tin chemicals are used in a broad range of personal care applications. In addition to the use of stannous fluoride, stannous chloride is used in various dental formulations to improve gum health and prevent enamel erosion. Various inorganic stannate compounds are used to stabilize aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution against decomposition originating from impurities introduced by the dilution waters. Lastly, inorganic tins are used as esterification catalysts to synthesize nonionic surfactants used emollient additives.
– Surface Finishing: Tin is widely used in the electronics industry to protect base metals from oxidation and securing circuit components (tin is sometimes referred to the “glue of the electronic industry” as it replaces lead as the main solder component). Tin chemicals such as stannous chloride, stannates, sulfates and fluoborates are used acid and alkaline electrolytic platting processes as either the anode or cathode component. For many years, inorganic tin chemicals were used in the plating of all types of pistons, primarily due to tin’s inherent lubricous nature.
– Homogeneous Catalysts: As mentioned above, tin chemicals are widely used as catalysts, specifically for esterifications, polyurethanes and silicones to synthesize a broad range of end-use products such as coatings, adhesives sealants, plastics, and foams. Stannous octoate, stannous decanoate, stannous oxalate, stannous chloride, dibutyltin dilaurate are commonly used as catalysts. Stannous octoate is the common catalyst used in the production of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA)/ corn starch-based plastics.
– Lubricants: Given that tin is considered as a “soft” metal with a fairly low melting point, various tin chemicals are used as lubricant additives, including stannous octoate and stannous neodecanoate.
– Batteries/Renewable Energy Storage: Tin chemicals are being studied as anode components in next generation battery systems as a simple, cost-effective way to increase the amount of energy that lithium batteries can store.
– Glass: Various tin chemicals are used in the processing of industrial and consumer glass products acting as either strengthening or temperature stability additives. Stannous chloride and stannous oxide are commonly used chemicals. Stannous chloride is a commonly used reducing agent in the silvering process for coating mirrors.
– Plastics: Tin chemicals are used in various plastic applications including acting as stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and crosslinking agents used in the synthesis of thermoplastic vulcanates (TPVs) based elastomers. Stannous chlorides are widely used in both industrial and consumer-based TPVs.
BNT-Chemicals, “Tin Catalysts & Stabilizers”
Google Patents, “Use of tin catalysts for the production of polyurethane coatings”